Bone pain treatment

Bone pain is generally characterized by a dull ache that’s well localized and increases with weight-bearing or at night. The pain is generally constant, gradually increasing in intensity also it gets worse with movement. If cancer has spread towards the spine, even breathing hurts.

Bone pain might be hard to differentiate from ordinary low back pain or arthritis. Usually the pain because of bone metastasis is rather constant, even during the night. It can be worse in different positions, for example standing, which might compress cancer in a weight bearing bone. If pain can last for more than a couple of weeks, doesn’t appear to be going away, and it is unlike other pain that may have been experienced, it ought to be evaluated by a physician.

Bone pain could be the result of direct tumor involvement. Pain is produced once the tumor infiltrates the skeletal structures. The tumor may compress surrounding arteries, nerves, and soft tissue, or might be activating nociceptors (pain receptors) located to begin. Pain can also be a result of tissue compression brought on by fibrosis (a condition brought on by an increase in tissue) following the patient has undergone radiation therapy ; this type of bone pain tends to be tolerable. A predominant supply of bone pain in the cancer patient is due to pathologic fracture and to osteoclast-induced bone resorption by the tumor. This condition promotes bone loss and, at the same time, provides growth factors for the tumor to improve in size.

Bone pain in patients with cancer is commonly caused by cancer cells that have spread to the bones, called bone metastases. Bone pain is often the first symptom of bone metastases and could lead to tests that will confirm the diagnosis. Strategy to bone pain is supposed to relieve the pain, treat fractures, reduce the risk of fracture, and prevent or delay additional bone complications. Treatments include pain medications, bisphosphonate drugs, radiation therapy, and/or surgery.

Treatment of bone pain is principally aimed at treating the primary disease resulting in the pain. In infections, transient synovitis, and rheumatic fever, no specific treatment is necessary for the bone pain, which resolves spontaneously in the end. However, in some diseases, like osteoarthritis, bone cancer, and so forth, this is not possible. In such situations, palliative treatment in the form of local steroid injections or oral analgesics, form the mainstay of treatment.

Comprehensive control over bone pain includes non-clinical choices. Patients should be encouraged to participate in complementary therapies, plus some patients might want to investigate more alternative therapies. More conventional complementary therapies may include relaxation and imagery therapy, cognitive distraction and reframing, support group and pastoral counseling, skin stimulation, biofeedback, nerve blocks, immobilization and stabilization techniques, and surgical intervention. Less well-defined alternative therapies can include acupuncture, body massage with pressure and vibration techniques, hypnosis, menthol preparations, and holistic or herbal medical practices. No conclusive data exist of the effectiveness of those therapies used alone; however, along with conventional methods of bone pain management, they don’t appear to hinder therapy and could provide the patient with increased goodwill and a positive outlook.

Men: Don't Forget about Your PSA

The topic of men’s health may conjure a variety of topics when considered. Men have historically fallen significantly behind women in being proactive about health screenings that may prevent disease. With some basic information, men can become wiser health care consumers who understand that certain preventive health measures enable one to have a healthier life or potentially save their life.

Women clearly outpace men when it comes to preventive health screenings. Annually the great majority of women have a gynecological examination to test for cervical cancer. Conversely, men are not recommended to have colorectal cancer tests until the age of 50.

A couple of years ago a friend of mine who was well below the age of 50 died from complication from colorectal cancer. He told me he should have had both a colorectal and prostate screening but did not. He thought he was only dealing with stress. In fact, the stress symptoms of pain were related to a metastasizing cancer.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services produces some basic guidelines that suggest men seek examination at certain times in our lives. However, we should listen to our bodies and seek appropriate medical treatment should we feel pain that is abnormal or prolonged and we have not yet reached a suggested age for a particular health screening.

First and foremost, men should establish a relationship with a medial professional. Under most circumstances, a family medicine specialist will be the appropriate type of physician. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, when visiting your primary care physician the following are among the things you should be discussing with your doctor:

-have your cholesterol checked every five years starting at age 20.
-Have your blood pressure checked at least every 2 years.
-Have a test done for diabetes if you have hypertension or high cholesterol.
-Talk to your doctor about depression if you have been feeling down for at least two weeks straight.
-At age 50 at the latest, have a colorectal cancer test and a prostate cancer screening.

While going to your doctor for preventive health screenings will cost you money and money, the small investment in men’s preventive health care may ultimately save you a lot of money. As we see rising health insurance costs correlate to rising out of pocket expenses on insurance plans, preventing disease and illness is a modest cost compared to treating a disease or an illness.

Preventive health screenings would cost in the 100ss of dollars versus treating a disease costing in the 10’s of thousands of dollars.

If we take better care of ourselves through better nutrition stress management, exercising regularly, seeking regular preventive health screenings, loosing weight and tobacco cessation, we can live longer and healthier.

Had my friend considered these lifestyle changes he might still be with us. But he ignored some basic signs that he later said should have been signals to go to the doctor for cancer screenings. He told me this before he passed away and mentioned that I should tell this to all men. The opportunity to tell my friend’s story is one I feel he would want me to tell given this opportunity.

Men’s Health is a topic that often is taboo. Men are uncomfortable discussing colorectal examinations or other medical screenings. Women are much more comfortable regarding these matters as they have been involved in gynecological examinations typically since puberty.

Men must be more accountable for their health and begin a more proactive role with their primary care physician. If you do not have a relationship with a primary care physician, start one now!

Investing a little today in preventive health care could give you greater quality of life today and in to the future.

Overview of Penile Cancer

Penile cancer is cancer of the penis, the male sex organ, and it is not as common as other forms of cancer. Penile cancer can develop in people aged 60 years or older, in people that have phimosis (the foreskin cannot be pulled back over the glans), people that have poor personal hygiene, people that have too many sexual partners and people that consistently use tobacco products. The symptoms of penile cancer include redness, irritation, or the development of a sore on the penis. Another symptom of penile cancer includes the development of a lump on the penis itself. A physical exam, the history of the patient, or a biopsy can be used to determine whether or not a person has penile cancer.

The chance of recovery and how to determine the treatment options depends on the prognosis of the disease. The prognosis is determined by the stage of the cancer, the location and the size of the tumor, and whether the cancer was just diagnosed or is recurring. There are three main tests performed to determine how far along the cancer has become and those tests are an MRI, a CT Scan, and an Ultrasound. An MRI, short for magnetic resonance imaging, uses radio waves to make a series of pictures of the patient’s body. A CT Scan is a procedure that makes a series of pictures of the body from different angles. An Ultrasound is a procedure in which high energy sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs which then make echoes. The echoes then form a picture of the body’s tissues known as a sonogram.

There are six common stages of penile cancer. Those stages include Stage 0, Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, Stage IV and recurrent penile cancer. Stage O penile cancer is when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the skin of the penis. These abnormal cells might form into cancer and spread to other parts of the body but they might not spread at all. Stage O penile cancer is also referred to as carcinoma in situ. Stage I penile cancer is when the cancer has formed and spread to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis.

Stage II penile cancer is when the cancer has spread to the tissue of just under the skin of the penis and to one lymph node in the groin or erectile tissue and may have spread to one lymph node in the groin. Stage III penile cancer is when the cancer has spread to the connective tissue or erectile tissue of the penis and to more than one lymph node on one or both sides of the groin or has spread to the urethra or the prostate. Stage IV penile cancer is when the cancer has spread to tissues near the penis and may have spread to lymph nodes in the groin or the pelvis or has spread to anywhere in or near the penis or to other distant parts of the body. Recurring penile cancer is cancer that has gone away and returned again. The cancer can come back in the penis or in other parts of the body.

Sleep Apnea Symptoms And Treatments – Saying Good Bye To Snoring And Exhaustion

As we reach middle age we are faced with a variety of health factors. From heart disease to diabetes, and cancer to erectile dysfunction, maintaining a healthy lifestyle requires closer attention to one’s health than when they were younger. Unfortunately, not everyone follows the guidelines given to them by their doctor, and many medical issues can go unnoticed for years. One of the most common yet frequently undiagnosed medical issues middle aged people face is sleep apnea.

What is Sleep Apnea?

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that consists of pauses in breathing during sleep that involves the sleeping person missing one or more breaths repeatedly throughout night. The shortness of breath can cause low blood oxygen saturation and increased neurological activity, which can lead to daytime sleepiness and fatigue due to the lack of restful sleep.

There are three different forms of sleep apnea: Central, Obstructive, and Complex. Central Sleep Apnea is an interruption of breathing caused by a lack of effort while Obstructive Sleep Apnea is caused by a physical block to airflow despite effort. In Complex, or “Mixed” Sleep Apnea, there is a transition from Central to Obstructive during the breathing interruptions themselves. The three types of SA can be diagnosed by your doctor using an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram and by measuring blood oxygen levels.

Individuals with sleep apnea are rarely aware that they are having difficulty breathing at night. It is usually recognized as a problem by others actually witnessing the interruptions in breathing or suspected because of the effects on the body. Those with severe cases of obstructive sleep apnea will typically fall asleep for brief periods during normal daily activity if given the opportunity to rest. Other signs include loud snoring with periods of silence followed by gasps, morning headaches, trouble concentrating, increased heart rate, anxiety, depression, and heavy night sweating.

Who is at risk?

Those who have decreased muscle tone, increased soft tissue around the airway, and structural features that cause a narrow airway are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Because of the differences in body structure (the anatomy of the male body is typified by increased body mass in the torso and neck), women typically suffer from sleep apnea much less frequently than men, but both sexes are at high risk if they are obese. Sleep Apnea is also very common in middle aged men.

How is Sleep Apnea treated?

Doctors recommend a variety of treatments based on the individual case and cause of the sleep interruptions. In cases where obstructions are created by inflammation of the adenoids or tonsils, the apnea can be treated by anti-inflammatories or surgical removal, but that primarily applies to children. Surgical procedures are available to remove and tighten tissue and widen the airway, but the success rate of these surgeries is not high.

In many cases sleep apnea can be treated with lifestyle changes such as losing weight, stopping smoking, and avoiding alcohol and medications that relax the central nervous system, such as sedatives and muscle relaxants. Some people use special pillows and devices to help them keep from sleeping on their backs, such as the Better Sleep Pillow and the Sleep Posture Pillow. However, doctors will often recommend continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP to treat obstructive sleep apnea. When using a CPAP machine, the sleep apnea sufferer wears a special mask attached to a machine that blows pressurized air through the airway to keep it open. The level of air pressure is prescribed by a physician. While some patients are reluctant to use this form of therapy because the machine and mask look clumsy and uncomfortable, the difference in sleep quality can usually be felt after one night of use.

Choosing a CPAP Machine – AEIOMed Everest 2 CPAP Machine

A variety of CPAP machines are available, ranging in price from $ 230 – $ 1200. However, one unit stands out from the rest when it comes to value, convenience, and portability: the AEIOMed Everest 2 CPAP Machine.

The only CPAP machine that is powered by an optional integrated battery, the Everest 2 features automatic altitude adjustment, leak compensation, and whisper-quiet operation even at higher pressures. Because it has the ability to run off of a battery, the Everest 2 can be used when camping or traveling. The battery can last up to 11 hours of continuous use depending on the pressure setting and the compact size of the machine makes it ideal for use on airlines. The available Headrest with Nasal Seal Kit offers the user exceptional comfort with increased functionality, eliminating the need for a mask that touches the face.

An optional heated humidifier and optional mobile power adaptor are also available. The pressure setting on the machine is set by the retailer before it is shipped, so retailers will need a copy of the patient’s prescription.

The First Step is to See a Doctor

Restless nights can lead to fatigue and sleepiness, which is dangerous whether you are at work or behind the wheel of your car. If you find you are not getting a good night’s sleep, or your spouse is complaining of unusually loud snoring, talk to your doctor about sleep apnea. If he prescribes use of a CPAP machine, check out the AEIOMed Everest 2 – you will enjoy the convenience, functionality, and price.

What you need to know about Green Coffee Bean Max?

Is Green Coffee Bean Max safe? Is it without the chemicals that I react to?I react to stimulants normally found in diet pills. Stimulants make my stomach jittery and I dont like the feeling. They are a speed type substance. Caffeine is one such stimulant. I dont even drink coffee because of the caffeine. Every once in awhile I will drink decaffeinated. But not everyday.

Usually I do get get a reaction when the ingredients in a diet pill have caffeine as an extra ingredient. The caffeine is not from the main ingredient but added to the supplement to help lose weight. Like ma hueng, another stimulant is added in to diet supplements, causing jittery stomach.

Green Coffee Bean Does Have Caffeine

However I drink green tea all day long. I And green tea does have caffeine. But I feel great drinking green tea. No jittery stomach. I don’t know why my stomach gets jittery from coffee and does not get jittery from green tea. And never have have had a reaction drinking tons of green tea. I have green tea either hot or cold. Both taste delicious to me and I believe in the benefits of green tea.

Green tea is excellent for you

“I believe in green tea based on everything written about it,” says Katherine Tallmadge, RD, LD, a nutritionist and spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association. On the WebMD website they tell us there is ore than a decade’s worth of research about green tea’s health benefits. http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/health-benefits-of-green-tea . Green tea is believed to potentially fight cancer and heart disease . Green tea also has a role in lowering cholesterol, burning fat, preventing diabetes and stroke, and staving off dementia. So there are clearly benefits to drinking green tea.

Harvard Medical School Research on Green Tea

Harvard Medical School in their Harvard Medical Publication states green tea is beneficial. Quote Although tea drinking has been associated with health benefits for centuries, only in recent years have its medicinal properties been investigated scientifically. The October issue of Harvard Women’s Health Watch recognizes the healthy power of tea while helping readers get the most out of their cups.

Tea’s health benefits are largely due to its high content of flavonoids — plant-derived compounds that are antioxidants. Green tea is the best food source of a group called catechins. In test tubes, catechins are more powerful than vitamins C and E in halting oxidative damage to cells and appear to have other disease-fighting properties.
Studies Show Benefits

Studies have found an association between consuming green tea and a reduced risk for several cancers, including, skin, breast, lung, colon, esophageal, and bladder. End quotehttp://www.health.harvard.edu/press_releases/benefit_of_drinking_green_tea

In lifehack.org l there is an extensive list of benefits regarding green tea,

http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/11-benefits-of-green-tea-that-you-didnt-know-about.html

Quote

Below is a list of some of its amazing benefits — benefits that you may not have been aware of. Some of these benefits are still being debated, so please do your own research if you want to use green tea for medicinal purposes.
Medical Benefits of Green Tea and Green Coffee Bean

Weight Loss

Green tea increases the metabolism. The polyphenol found in green tea works to intensify levels of fat oxidation and the rate at which your body turns food into calories.

Diabetes

Green tea apparently helps regulate glucose levels slowing the rise of blood sugar after eating. This can prevent high insulin spikes and resulting fat storage.

Heart Disease

Scientists think, green tea works on the lining of blood vessels, helping keep them stay relaxed and better able to withstand changes in blood pressure. It may also protect against the formation of clots, which are the primary cause of heart attacks.

Esophageal Cancer

It can reduce the risk of esophageal cancer, but it is also widely thought to kill cancer cells in general without damaging the healthy tissue around them.

Cholesterol

Green tea reduces bad cholesterol in the blood and improves the ratio of good cholesterol to bad cholesterol.

Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s

It is said to delay the deterioration caused by Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Studies carried out on mice showed that green tea protected brain cells from dying and restored damaged brain cells.

Tooth Decay

Studies suggests that the chemical antioxidant “catechin” in tea can destroy bacteria and viruses that cause throat infections, dental caries and other dental conditions

Blood Pressure

Regular consumption of green tea is thought to reduce the risk of high blood pressure.

Depression

Theanine is an amino acid naturally found in tea leaves. It is this substance that is thought to provide a relaxing and tranquilizing effect and be a great benefit to tea drinkers.

Anti-viral and Anti-bacterial

Tea catechins are strong antibacterial and antiviral agents which make them effective for treating everything from influenza to cancer. In some studies green tea has been shown to inhibit the spread of many diseases.

Skincare

Green tea can apparently also help with wrinkles and the signs of aging, This is because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Both animal and human studies have demonstrated that green tea applied topically can reduce sun damage.” End Quote

Green Coffee Bean Max is made from green tea beans.

Green Coffee Bean Diet is made from green tea beans. This extract is completely natural, coming from green (or natural, raw and unroasted) coffee beans. Health experts claim that it’s perfectly safe for pretty much anyone IF it is a quality product.
Several Studies Done

To test the effectiveness of green coffee extract on weight loss, there have been several studies done. And not a single case of side effects in the controlled studies. Not one. That is pretty impressive.

This extract is completely natural, coming from green (or natural, raw and unroasted) coffee beans. Health experts claim that it’s perfectly safe for pretty much anyone IF it is a quality product.

I suggest you take one green bean diet and see how it affects you. Take green bean diet pill before a meal, have your meal don’t take another pill for that day. If no adverse reaction, the next day take the recommended dosage of 3 pills taken before a meal.Click here to use Green Coffee Bean Max fights fat.

The Diseases That Hormone Therapy is Used For

The hormone therapy is used for various purposes. After long medical experiments and examination, the modern medicine has discovered this kind of treatment. The hormonal treatment consists of injection of hormones or drugs that will have different biological effect to the body of the patient.

Hormones are chemicals released in our body by certain cells or glands. These chemicals are released only in one part of the body though. From here, a message is sent to other parts of the body, thus affecting the cells that are in that region.

There are many uses for this kind of treatment. One would be the cancer. Cancer has been bothering the world for a very long time. Cancer represents the ailment when some cells divide uncontrollably, thus spreading in some parts of the body where they should not be. This is called malign tumor. Not all the tumors are dangerous. Benign tumors do nothing bad to human body, so you should not worry about them.

Then there are the aging problems that all the old people encounter sooner or later. For women, the hormone replacement therapy represents the use of certain medications in order to boost the level of oestrogen, progesterone, progestins and even testosterone, for the women affected of menopause. None the less, this treatment is good because it may prolong life and may reduce incidence of dementia.

For men, however, the hormone therapy represents the administration of testosterone, because they lose more and more testosterone as they get old. The testosterone is the principal sex hormone that a man has, and it is also used as an anabolic steroid. You may have seen the huge scandals that happen when an athlete is caught using anabolic steroids. That happens because the anabolic steroids are against the law. The testosterone has a lot of purposes in the male body. Some are the maintenance of muscle trophism, the mental and physical energy control, and the hormonal evolution of sexual characters.

Another purpose of the hormonal treatment is the sex change. The people that are not satisfied by the characteristics of their sex can assist to such hormonal treatments and change the sides. By doing this, the sexual characteristics changes accordingly, and for a complete change, the person who changes sexes also assists to a surgery. The thing that changes the characteristics of the person are the hormones, so this therapy actually means replacing the usual hormones with the one of the opposite sex.

And last but not least, the hormonal replacement for hypothyroidism. The thyroxines are the hormones secreted by the thyroid. They have various purposes, and for those who encounter deficiency in thyroidal secretion, this hormonal treatment will solve their problems.

There are many other uses of the hormone therapy, and throughout these years the modern medicine has been using them all. This treatment can help the people affected by many other different diseases. There have been a lot of experiments and a lot of observations done so the reports were as clear as possible, and finally, the treatments proved to be successful.

Reasons Why You Should Visit A Head And Neck Specialist Today

The letters E, N, and T in ENT clinic represent our ears, nose, and throat, but an ENT clinic does not only take care of conditions that are restricted to these three body parts, they can also treat disorders and illnesses that affect related organs like the upper respiratory system.

For the most part, an ENT practitioner can also be known as a head and neck specialist. This is because this type of doctor’s expertise is concentrated on parts of the human anatomy that are located on the head and neck, mainly the nose, sinuses, ears, the larynx or voice box, the throat, and pretty much all the external and internal aspects of our neck.

More often than not, we don’t pay much attention to the signs and symptoms of illnesses that we experience in the body organs that were previously mentioned, this is probably because these organs are likely to be affected by common sicknesses such as cough and colds, sicknesses that are often seen as minor conditions that could eventually work themselves out.

But little do we know that this practice of ignoring “minor” indicators like throat irritation, cough, and colds, is really very unhealthy, and not to mention, dangerous. This is because these things that we’re experiencing could be tell-tale signs of a much more critical condition, the type of condition that will only get worse if not treated immediately.

A fairly real example of which would be the emergence of an abnormal growth or lump in one’s neck, this lump may or might not be painful and it could simply signify a minor inflammation and irritation. It could also be a sign of a more serious illness like hypothyroidism (an abnormality of the thyroid gland leading to the insufficient production of thyroid hormones), hyperthyroidism (the overactivity of the thyroid gland that results in the increased production of thyroid hormones), as well as throat tumor or cancer. In such conditions, it would be best to seek advice from a thyroid lumps specialist immediately.

That is why similar to any other part of our anatomy, we must pay close attention to the upper respiratory tract, neck, and all other related organs, and never fail to report symptoms to our doctors even when they seem insignificant.

Skin Cancer Radiation Therapy Has Improved Over The Years

When radiation is used to treat skin cancer it is the use of x-rays to eliminate the skin cancer cells. It will usually take multiple visits for treatment before the skin cancer can be completely destroyed. It will take place over time. Skin cancer radiation treatment is generally used when skin cancer keeps coming back or is particularly resistant to treatment.

Skin cancer radiation treatment is not a first option for treatment. There are cases, however, where it is the only option that is available. Many times the condition of the patient or other mitigating circumstances will require the use of radiation treatment for skin cancer. The reasons that skin cancer radiation treatment might be used are many. It could be that the patient has other health considerations that prevent them from undergoing other forms of treatment.

The area where the skin cancer is either too large or in an area that is not conducive to treatment with surgery are other reasons that radiation treatment might be sought. It is always possible that a skin cancer has been treated but is reoccurring frequently.

This type of treatment has been shown to have some success for difficult skin cancers. In patients who were experiencing a fifty percent reoccurrence of their skin cancer the radiation treatment dropped that number to twenty five percent.

There are some risks to treating skin cancer with radiation, however. You may develop new skin cancers in the area that surround the affected area. If the skin cancer reoccurs after the treatment it may be that much harder to treat because of the radiation. And you might experience damage to your healthy skin in the same area.

Radiation treatment of skin cancer carries some significant side effects. These include loss of energy and appetite, hair that falls out, and persistent skin redness. These side effects usually last no longer than the radiation treatment.

Your doctor should have already discussed this kind of treatment for your skin cancer if you are seriously considering it. You will need to be very careful in reviewing your situation, to ensure that this treatment suits your needs. Radiation may not be the best option for treating you skin cancer, and your doctor should consider all other treatment options before proceeding with radiation treatment.

Cancer and Social Networking

Copyright (c) 2012 Social-medicine.org

Combining the three key areas of communication, community and content on a social networking platform opens the doors not previously made available:
– Instant two way communication helps bring people closer
– Supportive communities through enhanced functionality
– Friend circles allows people to connect and bond with others globally

Social Networking Users with Cancer
More than 12.5 million health-related searches are conducted on the Internet each day. More than 2.3 million people dealing with cancer are online and searching for answers, and about 20% of people with cancer use the Internet through family and friends. However, the exact number of people with cancer cannot be determined. As cancer is widespread in developed countries, and people generally have better Internet access, the assumption of 20% of people with cancer are Internet users, may actually be an underestimation.

Internet usage by cancer sufferers can be summarised into key areas:
Communication
Allowing for the functionality to email, live chat, video/ photo uploads, particularly on social networking platforms

Community
Being a part of online support group and seeking closure from others, also seen on social networking platforms

Content
Seeking relevant and updated health information, can also be obtained from social networking platforms

The above key areas summarises how people living with cancer are using the Internet, favouring social networking platforms, and provides a framework for current and future cancer research.

1. Communication
For people with cancer, e-mail communication is important for staying in touch with friends and family. Email is rated the top item for the reason why people go online. An astounding 31 billion e-mail messages are exchanged daily worldwide. However, as 40% of all e-mail messages exchanged are spam, and relate to health items such as breast augmentation, weight loss, and more. However, sending emails is not as effective as other forms of communication, where questions can be answered immediately.

There is opportunity to improve email communication between cancer sufferers. Cancer sufferers are expected to have all the current social networking functionality such as making friends, uploading photos and videos, writing on walls, e-mail, live chat one-to-one or in groups, and comment on blogs written. These forms of communication may help patients ask questions, facilitate understanding and shared decision-making, and reduce unnecessary appointments.

2. Community
Online health communities or electronic support groups have emerged when enough people have registered to sustain public discussions, on a health related topic. Yahoo!Groups have more than 22,000 health communities in the Health & Wellness section, among them at least 280 cancer groups. Some health communities are facilitated by trained professionals, either oncology nurses, counselors, or cancer survivors.

The advantages of online health communities over face-to-face groups include absence of geographic and transport barriers; anonymity from stigmatizing, embarrassing, and sensitive issues; increasing self-disclosure; and encouraging honesty. Even people with rare diseases can find peers online. The anonymity of online communities may facilitate the participation of certain people, who may be culturally and socially conditioned not to ask for help and support.

However, the disadvantages of online health communities include a considerable amount of “noise,” negative emotions persuade, and lack of physical contact. As with content found online, there have been concerns over inaccurate information exchange online health communities. As honesty is taken at face value, where accomplishments, photos and updates cannot be fully verified, there are no system fact checkers, within the online world.

What Kind of Messages Are Exchanged In These Online Health Communities?
Information exchanged in health communities, show 80% of information giving or seeking personal opinions, encouragement, support, and personal experiences, and 20% prayers. Women are engaging in supportive messages more frequently than men, who used the electronic community primarily for information exchange.

What Is The Effect Of Online Health Communities On Well-being And Health Outcomes?
The various types of social networking such as e-mail, blogs and chat-rooms can increase social isolation and decreased mental health and psychological wellbeing. Heavy Internet use can be associated with increases in loneliness and depression and tended to increase stress. However, people found within online communities seek for comfort and support from others found within the communities.

3. Content
The quality of information on cancer found on the Internet shows an accuracy of: 4% for prostate cancer, 5.1% for breast cancer, and 6% for testicular cancer. The published rates of inaccurate information are disturbing. But very little evidence supports the notion that information found on the Internet is worse than the content found on forums, where the content written is by illness sufferers detailing their experiences. There are increasing demands of consumer driven health content. Real people suffering from cancer, write the content seen on forums and social networking sites, are seen as a favorable source of information by other cancer sufferers.

Why Are Patients Turning to Web Information?
It is seen that 48% of people with cancer reported that they had insufficient information provided by their physicians, while 20% were not satisfied with the information given and 39% of women with breast cancer indicated that they “wished that they had help with knowing what questions to ask.” However, dissatisfaction with information provided is not the only reason why patients turn to the Internet.

What Is the Effect of Information on Persons With Cancer?
The provision of information provided to people with cancer has been shown to help them gain control, reduce anxiety, create realistic expectations, promote self-care and participation, and generate feelings of safety and security. The satisfaction with information provided has been shown to correlate with quality of life. People, who feel satisfied with the adequacy of information given, are more likely to feel happy with their level of participation and in the overall process of decision-making.

The future role of the Nurse in speedier Cancer testing

The Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, announced in his key speech at this year’s Labour Party conference that he plans to bring in speedier testing for cancer in patients showing symptoms of the disease. This will mean earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment, and could potentially save thousands of lives. This promise is building upon what the NHS has already achieved since it received extra funding and brought down the age for breast cancer screening, which has already made a difference to many women’s lives.

In his speech, Gordon Brown pledged to “finance a new right for cancer patients to have diagnostic tests carried out, completed and with results – often same day results – within one week of seeing your GP. That is our early diagnosis guarantee, building on our current guarantee of only two weeks wait to see a specialist.” The Labour Party promises to meet this target by 2014.

Initially the proposal will be implemented for lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers, with other cancers being brought into the service within 5 years. Funding which has previously been used for making improvements to hospital buildings will now be used to provide more diagnostics equipment within GP surgeries and community hospitals, including CT scanners.

So how will this be implemented? Leading cancer expert, Professor Mike Richards, will be leading the new initiative and has stated that it will involve new roles for nurses who will play an important role in carrying out many of the tests, including endoscopies and ultrasounds. The investment in the initiative will create further training opportunities for nurses and could create more nurse jobs. Nursing jobs could also involve raising more awareness of cancerous symptoms, such as unexpected weight loss, changes in bowel habits, persistent coughing or noticeable changes to a mole or wart. This will build upon the nurse’s role in cancer care as rehabilitative carer, where they address rehabilitation issues for patients in teaching, counseling and guidance.

However, there is a fear that the new responsibilities could add pressure to nurses who are already buckling under the strain of a large workload. It could prove challenging to implement the gold standard of clinical examination, ultra sound and pathology in the shorter time frame, bringing into question the quality of the diagnosis as well as the speed.

The new early diagnosis will benefit those patients who show some cancerous symptoms but do not fulfill all the conditions for immediate referral to a specialist. For example, if a young woman found a small lump in her breast, she is below the common age for breast cancer, so may not be referred to a specialist so quickly. The new scheme will be particularly helpful in detecting ovarian cancer, which can be hard to spot as it presents indistinct symptoms. The chief executive of Ovarian Cancer Action, Peter Reynolds, has stated that most women with ovarian cancer were currently diagnosed with the disease at a later stage, making treatment harder and bringing the success rate down.